The plant is the largest building by volume ever built, and has been substantially expanded several times to permit construction of other models of Boeing wide-body commercial jets. 2 undelivered Boeing testbeds) as of December 2020, econ.  The 747 also has split control surfaces and was designed with sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways. , During later stages of the flight test program, flutter testing showed that the wings suffered oscillation under certain conditions.  Many international carriers continued to use the 747 on Pacific routes. ", "Customer Symposium Highlights Future Boeing 747 Models.  The cockpit was, therefore, placed on a shortened upper deck so that a freight-loading door could be included in the nose cone; this design feature produced the 747's distinctive "hump".  Sutter began a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. On December 13, 1969 a test aircraft was being taken to have test equipment removed and a cabin installed when pilot Ralph C. Cokely undershot the airport's short runway. In January 2004, Boeing and Cathay Pacific launched the Boeing 747-400 Special Freighter program, later referred to as the Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF), to modify passenger 747-400s for cargo use. , A total of 81 747-300 series aircraft were delivered, 56 for passenger use, 21 -300M and 4 -300SR versions. However, engineering studies showed that a major redesign of the 747 wing would be necessary. The 747-300 first flew on October 5, 1982, and the type's first delivery went to Swissair on March 23, 1983.  As of January 2021 Boeing is to deliver the last four 747s to Atlas Air in 2022.  After being made standard on the 747-300, the SUD was offered as a retrofit, and as an option to earlier variants still in-production.  The -200C could also be outfitted with an optional side cargo door on the main deck. 21134/288 – 747SP-44 registration ZS-SPC at the, 21549/336 – 747-206B registration PH-BUK at the, 22145/410 – 747-238B registration VH-EBQ at the, 23223/606 - 747-300 registration VH-EBU at, 23719/696 – 747-451 registration N661US at the.  Cruising speed is up to Mach 0.855 on different versions of the 747-400. , A former Pakistan International Airlines 747-300 was converted into a restaurant by Pakistan's Airports Security Force in 2017. The planes CS - TTH, CS-TTR and CS-TTI landed this afternoon.  As on the -100, a stretched upper deck (SUD) modification was later offered. Responding to requests from Japanese airlines for a high-capacity aircraft to serve domestic routes between major cities, Boeing developed the 747SR as a short-range version of the 747-100 with lower fuel capacity and greater payload capability.  In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. , After several variants were proposed but later abandoned, some industry observers became skeptical of new aircraft proposals from Boeing. The upper deck was stretched more on the 747−8. INCIDENT UPS Boeing 747 slid off the taxiway at Louisville Airport AIRLIVE.net 14:35 17-Feb-21 UAE aviation agency clears Boeing 737 Max to fly again Mail Online 14:34 17-Feb-21 Astronics Awarded Contracts to Support Boeing’s MQ-25 Unmanned Tanker for the U.S. Navy Business Wire (Press Release) 13:42 17-Feb-21 Boeing decided instead to pursue a shortened four-engine 747, resulting in the 747SP. The 747 remained the largest passenger airliner in service until the Airbus A380 began airline service in 2007. As of 2020[update], 61 Boeing 747s have been lost in accidents, in which a total of 3,722 people have died. , On July 12, 2016, Boeing announced that it had finalized an order from Volga-Dnepr Group for 20 747-8 freighters, valued at $7.58 billion at list prices. Passenger, freighter and combination passenger-freighter versions of the -200 were produced.  The 747SP, compared to earlier variants, had a tapering of the aft upper fuselage into the empennage, a double-hinged rudder, and longer vertical and horizontal stabilizers.  The 747-200 was produced in passenger (-200B), freighter (-200F), convertible (-200C), and combi (-200M) versions. A moderately loaded 747, one with only 70 percent of its seats occupied, used more than 95 percent of the fuel needed by a fully occupied 747.  (A different configuration that had been considered in order to keep the flight deck out of the way for freight loading had the pilots below the passengers, and was dubbed the "anteater".  The last 747-100B, EP-IAM was retired by Iran Air in 2014, the last commercial operator of the 747-100 and -100B. , In March 2007, Boeing announced that it had no plans to produce further passenger versions of the -400.  The era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel.  Initial competition came from the smaller trijet widebodies: the Lockheed L-1011 (introduced in 1972), Douglas DC-10 (1971) and later MD-11 (1990). ", "Boeing 747-8 Freighter Successfully Completes First Flight", "Pictures & Video: Boeing's 747-8F lifts off on maiden flight. The 747's maximum takeoff weight ranges from 735,000 pounds (333,400 kg) for the -100 to 970,000 lb (439,985 kg) for the -8. The Tenerife airport disaster resulted from pilot error and communications failure, while the Japan Airlines Flight 123 and China Airlines Flight 611 crashes stemmed from improper aircraft repair. , As Boeing did not have a plant large enough to assemble the giant airliner, they chose to build a new plant. ), One of the principal technologies that enabled an aircraft as large as the 747 to be drawn up was the high-bypass turbofan engine. As of July 2020, a total of 61 Boeing 747 aircraft, or just under 4% of the total number of 747s built, first flown commercially in 1970, have been involved in accidents and incidents resulting in a hull loss, meaning that the aircraft has either been destroyed or has been damaged beyond economical repair. , As of July 2019[update], there were 462 Boeing 747s in airline service, with Atlas Air and British Airways being the largest operators with 33 747-400s each. ", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-258F 4X-AXG Amsterdam", "Aircraft and Space Craft, Boeing 747−121.  The combi version entered service in September 1989 with KLM, while the freighter version entered service in November 1993 with Cargolux. The 747 cockpit roof section also has an escape hatch from which crew can exit during the events of an emergency if they cannot do so through the cabin. , The 747-400 Dreamlifter (originally called the 747 Large Cargo Freighter or LCF) is a Boeing-designed modification of existing 747-400s to a larger configuration to ferry 787 Dreamliner sub-assemblies. The new 747-8 freighters will replace AirBridgeCargo's current 747-400 aircraft and expand the airline's fleet and will be acquired through a mix of direct purchases and leasing over the next six years, Boeing said. ", "Boeing: Commercial Airplanes - 747 Fun Facts", "Japan Airlines To Receive 100th Boeing 747 Aircraft.  The 747-400 introduced a new glass cockpit designed for a flight crew of two instead of three, with a reduction in the number of dials, gauges and knobs from 971 to 365 through the use of electronics. , Developing the 747 had been a major challenge, and building its assembly plant was also a huge undertaking. Some of the last built 747-400s were delivered with Dreamliner livery along with the modern Signature interior from the Boeing 777. , On November 14, 2005, Boeing announced it was launching the 747 Advanced as the Boeing 747-8. , International flights bypassing traditional hub airports and landing at smaller cities became more common throughout the 1980s, thus eroding the 747's original market. ", "FAA Registry: Aircraft Inquiry: N-481EV", GE AVIATION DONATES 747-100 TESTBED TO MUSEUM, "Historic Aircraft Lands at Air and Space Museum.  Nine -100Bs were built, one for Iran Air and eight for Saudi Arabian Airlines.  Both would feature an interior based on the 777.  However, concern over evacuation routes and limited cargo-carrying capability caused this idea to be scrapped in early 1966 in favor of a wider single deck design.  Overall, twenty-nine 747SRs were built. Atlas Air N808MC. Originally flown commercially by Pan Am as N747PA, Clipper Juan T. Trippe, and repaired for service following a tailstrike, it stayed with the airline until its bankruptcy. ", "Boeing Offers New 747-400X Quiet Longer Range Jetliner.  Power would have been supplied by either the Engine Alliance GP7172 or the Rolls-Royce Trent 600, which were also proposed for the 767-400ERX. Lawrence, Philip K. and David Weldon Thornton. Young -400s are sold for 320 million yuan ($50 million) and Boeing stopped converting freighters, which used to cost nearly $30 million.  The first 747-8 Intercontinental passenger variant was delivered to Lufthansa on May 5, 2012. On December 22, 2013, the right wing on British Airways Flight 34, a Boeing 747-436 registered as G-BNLL, struck a building at, On March 19, 2015, 7O-YMN, a 747-SP used by the president of Yemen, was damaged by gunfire from troops loyal to deposed president, On August 27th,2020, A Boeing 747-SP belonging to, This page was last edited on 13 February 2021, at 01:25. Boeing announced the 747 ASB (Advanced Short Body) in 1986 as a response to the Airbus A340 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-11.  As launch customer, and because of its early involvement before placing a formal order, Pan Am was able to influence the design and development of the 747 to an extent unmatched by a single airline before or since.  The program was further delayed when one of the five test aircraft suffered serious damage during a landing attempt at Renton Municipal Airport, site of the company's Renton factory. The flight was a regularly scheduled passenger/cargo flight conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121.  Delta flew three of its last four aircraft on a farewell tour, from Seattle to Atlanta on December 19 then to Los Angeles and Minneapolis/St Paul on December 20.  No production freighter version of the 747-300 was built, but Boeing began modifications of used passenger -300 models into freighters in 2000. On November 12, 1996, Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 763, a 747-100B, collided with Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907, an, On March 5, 1999, Air France flight 6745, a 747-2B3F (F-GPAN) carrying 66. General Electric had pioneered the concept but was committed to developing the engine for the C-5 Galaxy and did not enter the commercial market until later.  The cost of the changes from previous 747 models, in particular the new wing for the 747-500X and -600X, was estimated to be more than US$5 billion. ", "Boeing Commits To Produce New Longer-Range 767-400ER. The type also features tail fuel tanks, revised engines, and a new interior. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair and withdrawn from service.  The -300 could be equipped with the same Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce powerplants as on the -200, as well as updated General Electric CF6-80C2B1 engines.  As on previous 747 freighters, the 747-8F features an overhead nose-door and a side-door on the main deck plus a side-door on the lower deck ("belly") to aid loading and unloading. However, the 747X family was unable to attract enough interest to enter production. ... Latest UK hospital deaths. , The 747-200B was the basic passenger version, with increased fuel capacity and more powerful engines; it entered service in February 1971.  In July 2015, Pakistan International Airlines retired their final 747-300 after 30 years of service. 939 km/h (507kt), *Overlapping production times like between the 747-400 and the 747-8 have been decided in favor of newer models. In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner.  However, airlines were not interested in the project and it was canceled in 1988 in favor of the 777. The first full-scale evacuation took two and a half minutes instead of the maximum of 90 seconds mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several volunteers were injured. In 1987, Boeing re-opened the 747SP production line after five years to build one last 747SP for an order by the United Arab Emirates government. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Report blames 747 crash at Brussels on bird strike, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, "Special Investigation Report - Wing Failure of Boeing 747-131, Near Madrid, Spain, May 9, 1976", "1977: Hundreds dead in Tenerife plane crash", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-2B3F (SCD) F-GPAN Chennai Airport (MAA)", "Rushing to Die, The Crash of Singapore Airlines flight 006", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-368 HZ-AIO Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL)", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-246F 9G-MKI Port Harcourt", https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20050124-0, "Crash: Kalitta B742 at Bogota on Jul 7th 2008, engine fire, impacted a farm house", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-437 VT-ESM Mumbai-Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (BOM)", "Cargo plane crashes near Dubai motorway killing two", "Crash: National Air Cargo B744 at Bagram on Apr 29th 2013, lost height shortly after takeoff following load shift and stall", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747SP-27 7O-YMN Aden International Airport (ADE)", "Belarus' First Deputy Foreign Minister signs Book of Condolences at Kyrgyzstan's embassy", "Под Бишкеком упал грузовой самолет Turkish Airlines (фото)", "При крушении Boeing под Бишкеком погибли не менее 16 человек", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boeing_747_hull_losses&oldid=1006465988, Accidents and incidents involving the Boeing 747, Articles with dead external links from November 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On March 27, 1977, the deadliest aviation accident in history occurred when. A total of 10 combi 747-200s were operated by KLM. This raised cockpit allows front loading of cargo on freight variants.  Although the 747-400XQLR did not move to production, many of its features were used for the 747 Advanced, which has now been launched as the 747-8. At the time, the new safety system was expected to cost US$100,000 to $450,000 per aircraft and weigh approximately 200 pounds (91 kg). An example for a retrofit were two UTA -200 Combis being converted in 1986, and an example for the option were two brand-new JAL -100 aircraft (designated -100BSR SUD), the first of which was delivered on March 24, 1986. United Airlines Flight 811, which suffered an explosive decompression mid-flight on February 24, 1989, led the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to issue a recommendation that the Boeing 747-100 and 747-200 cargo doors similar to those on the Flight 811 aircraft be modified to those featured on the Boeing 747-400. However, a particularly severe high-speed flutter problem was solved only by inserting depleted uranium counterweights as ballast in the outboard engine nacelles of the early 747s. The 747-200 soon followed, with its launch in 1968. , The wings of a 747 have been recycled as roofs of a house in Malibu, California. , The 747-100B model was developed from the -100SR, using its stronger airframe and landing gear design. Boeing introduced the -200 in 1971, with more powerful engines for a heavier maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 833,000 lb (378 t) from the initial 735,000 lb (333 t), for a longer 6,560 nmi (12,150 km) range up from 4,620 nmi (8,560 km).  In its first three years of production, the -200 was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines (initially the only engine available).  The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. The 747-300 was launched in 1980 and was followed by the 747-400 in 1985.  To level the site, more than four million cubic yards (three million cubic meters) of earth had to be moved.  In October 2016, UPS Airlines ordered 14 -8Fs to add capacity, along with 14 options, which it took in February 2018 to increase the total to 28 -8Fs on order. , In 1968, the program cost was US$1 Billion (7.4B today). ", "Boeing Delivers First 747-300 Special Freighter To Atlas Air", "Technical Specifications – 747 Classics", "Qantas's final Boeing 747-300 heads for graveyard. The 747 entered service on January 22, 1970, on Pan Am's New York–London route; the flight had been planned for the evening of January 21, but engine overheating made the original aircraft unusable.  Nonetheless, many flag-carriers purchased the 747 due to its prestige "even if it made no sense economically" to operate. After launching the -200 with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines, on August 1, 1972 Boeing announced that it had reached an agreement with General Electric to certify the 747 with CF6-50 series engines to increase the aircraft's market potential. Huge Airbus A319s land at Cotswold Airport after a Boeing 747 makes final flight. Boeing 747 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year): Orders and deliveries through the end of January 2021, As of October 2020, the 747 has been involved in 166 aviation accidents and incidents, including 63 accidents and hull losses causing 3746 fatalities. The Antonov An-225 Mriya cargo transport, which debuted in 1988, remains the world's largest aircraft by several measures (including the most accepted measures of maximum takeoff weight and length); one aircraft has been completed and is in service as of 2017[update]. The first 747-300, completed in 1983, included a stretched upper deck, increased cruise speed, and increased seating capacity. The most bloody period for civilian deaths was the month of invasion, March 2003, in which IBC says 3,977 ordinary Iraqis lost their lives. ", "Investigation of a Micro-Fighter / Airborne Aircraft Carrier Concept", "Supplementary Type Certificate ST01912LA Installation and removal of internal tanks, associated systems and support structure for the aerial dispersant of liquids", "Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 308911 SOFIA Quick Facts", "Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)", "Boeing nets 57 new orders, including big VIP planes.  The aircraft was chosen by airlines wishing to serve major airports with short runways. The model was also known as the 747-200 Combi.  Tests also involved taxiing such a large aircraft. The variant has 16% more payload capacity than its predecessor, allowing it to carry seven more standard air cargo containers, with a maximum payload capacity of 154 tons (140 tonnes) of cargo. While the first 747s were still being built, the device allowed pilots to practice taxi maneuvers from a high upper-deck position. For example, a few years back, an Air France 747 on takeoff from New Delhi, ran off the runway, severely damaging the undercarriage. Development cost soared, and production delays occurred as new technologies were incorporated at the request of airlines. The first flight took place on February 9, 1969 and the 747 was certified in December of that year. The -100BSR first flew on November 3, 1978, with first delivery to All Nippon Airways (ANA) on December 21, 1978.  After the aircraft's introduction with Pan Am, other airlines that had bought the 747 to stay competitive began to put their own 747s into service.  The -400 entered service in 1989.  The variant revived the 747-300 designation, which had been previously used on a design study that did not reach production. ", International Civil Aviation Organization, Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, repaired for service following a tailstrike, Boeing CX-HLS Model at Boeing Corporate Archives - 1963/64, Models of Boeing C-5A proposal and Lockheed's (Korean text, "Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, Partners in Freedom. By June 2020, 1,556 aircraft had been built, with 15 747-8s remaining on order.  Additionally, some of the most advanced high-lift devices used in the industry were included in the new design, to allow it to operate from existing airports.  The shortened 747SP (special performance) with a longer range was also developed, and entered service in 1976. Instead of dropping away from the wing, the engine knocked off the adjacent engine and damaged the wing.. , Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies developed for their bid had an influence. "B741" for all -100 models).. , On July 27, 2016, in its quarterly report to the Securities and Exchange Commission, Boeing discussed the potential termination of 747 production due to insufficient demand and market for the aircraft.  Increased maximum takeoff weight allows aircraft to carry more fuel and have longer range. , In 1985, development of the longer range 747-400 began.  The -8F was first delivered to Cargolux on October 12, 2011.  The variant had a new glass cockpit, which allowed for a cockpit crew of two instead of three, new engines, lighter construction materials, and a redesigned interior.  The 747SR had an economic design life objective of 52,000 flights during 20 years of operation, compared to 24,600 flights in 20 years for the standard 747. , In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft.  The 747 received its FAA airworthiness certificate in December 1969, clearing it for introduction into service.  Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated the JT9D to power the 747.  The 747-300SR, a short range, high-capacity domestic model, was produced for Japanese markets with a maximum seating for 584.  A third study concept, the 747-700X, would have combined the wing of the 747-600X with a widened fuselage, allowing it to carry 650 passengers over the same range as a 747-400. At the time, it was widely thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.  The 1,500th Boeing 747 was delivered in June 2014 to Lufthansa.  In addition to airline use, one 747SP was modified for the NASA/German Aerospace Center SOFIA experiment. Hot exhaust gasses caused a fire on the left wing. , The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s.  While some -300 customers continued operating the type, several large carriers replaced their 747-300s with 747-400s. Difficulties included engine stalls caused by rapid throttle movements and distortion of the turbine casings after a short period of service.  As of July 2019[update], only two 747-300s remain in commercial service, with Mahan Air (1) and TransAVIAexport Airlines (1). The crew were told that runway 23L was in use. In 1976, its unit cost was US$39M (175.2M today). , The airframe proposals shared a number of features. Boeing announced the larger 747-500X and -600X preliminary designs in 1996.  The final British Airways 747 flights departed London Heathrow on 8 October 2020.. ", "Boeing plans propfan engines for bigger jumbos in 1990s", "Impact of New Large Aircraft on Airport Design (PDF). The 747-8's fuselage is lengthened from 232 to 251 feet (70.8 to 76.4 m), marking the first stretch variant of the aircraft.  In Japan, 747s on domestic routes were configured to carry nearly the maximum passenger capacity.  Boeing would carry the nose door and raised cockpit concepts over to the design of the 747.  Iran Air retired the last passenger 747-200 in May 2016, 36 years after it was delivered.  Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight and remain in production even if sales of the passenger version declined. The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. Boeing built an unusual training device known as "Waddell's Wagon" (named for a 747 test pilot, Jack Waddell) that consisted of a mock-up cockpit mounted on the roof of a truck. Despite a minor problem with one of the flaps, the flight confirmed that the 747 handled extremely well. This factory is the largest building in the world and is where the 747, 767, 777, and the 787 are all assembled.  The proposed models would have combined the 747's fuselage with a new 251 ft (77 m) span wing derived from the 777.  Of these, 225 were -200B, 73 were -200F, 13 were -200C, 78 were -200M, and 4 were military. , For transportation of spare engines, the 747 can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the aircraft's port wing between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage. The payload bay had to be 17 feet (5.18 m) wide by 13.5 feet (4.11 m) high and 100 feet (30 m) long with access through doors at the front and rear.  The airplane also appears frequently in the television series Top Gear, which is filmed at Dunsfold. This aircraft first flew on June 20, 1979, received FAA certification on August 1, 1979, and was delivered the next day.  In 1982, its unit cost was US$83M (219.9M today). The type was certified by the FAA on September 26, 1973, with the first delivery on the same day. ", "Stratolaunch Flies World's Largest Plane for the First Time", "Boeing Outlines the "Value" of Its 747 Plans", "Boeing Shelves 747X to Focus on Faster Jet. Last 747-400s were later added to museum collections 1990 to Sabena [ 10 ], the wings suffered under... Minimize pilot retraining as on the 747-400 was delivered to Lufthansa in 1972, its unit cost US. And cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes - 747 Fun facts '', `` Boeing Offers new 747-400X longer! Have longer range was also a huge undertaking, `` Boeing Proposes 747-400X Quiet range. [ 17 ] Sutter began a design study with Pan Am on January 22 1970. Passenger capacity than both of them 98 ] however, the 747 is a large, long–range wide-body and. More environmentally friendly accident Boeing 747-258F 4X-AXG Amsterdam '', `` How Bad is Air travel for Freighter. 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