postal service act of 1792

Most of the mail went back and forth to counting houses and government offices in London. He also claimed that “the promise of mail delivery [helped] grow the nation and economy instead of serving only existing communities.” He illustrated its importance to people on the frontier by discussing the role of mail in the lives of people around Royalton, NY. Sherman wrote: “In the Spring of 1852, General Sherman mentioned that the quartermaster, Major L.C. All it takes to repeal an Act of Congress is another Act of Congress- not a constitutional amendment. In 1898, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition opened in Omaha, Nebraska, and the Post Office Department was ready with a nine-stamp commemorative series. In 1815 Edward Bates moved into the Easton home and lived there for years at Third and Elm. A number of inventors patented various ideas to attempt to solve the problem. The card could be used to open or add to an account when its value, together with any attached stamps, amounted to one or more dollars, or it could be redeemed for cash. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. The stamps of the 1861 series, unlike those of the two previous issues, remained valid for postage after they had been superseded—as has every subsequent United States stamp. Mail delivery and an earlier version of the Service had been in place since 1775 when Benjamin Franklin was named as the first postmaster and the Continental Congress paid him a salary of $1,000 … He was supplied with a good horse, and an order on the outgoing trains for exchange. Today in 1792, George Washington signed the Post Office Act, creating the United States Postal Service. Such provisionals included both prepaid envelopes and stamps, mostly of crude design, the New York Postmaster’s Provisional being the only one of quality comparable to later stamps. The Post Office in the 19th century was a major source of federal patronage. On March 18, 1970, postal workers in New York City — upset over low wages and poor working conditions, and emboldened by the Civil Rights movement — organized a strike against the United States government. In 1873, the Post Office began producing a pre-stamped post card. It also monitored foreign mail and acted as counter-espionage to help secure allied victory. Franklin’s son-in-law, Richard Bache, took over the position on November 7, 1776, when Franklin became an American emissary to France. He was notable not only as an avid stamp collector in his own right (with a collection estimated at around 1 million stamps), but also for taking an interest in the stamp issues of the Post Office Department, working closely with Postmaster James Farley, the former Democratic Party Committee Chairman. Pickering continued in the position until 1795, when he briefly served as secretary of war, before becoming the third U.S. secretary of state.  The Post Office Act of 1792 was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress “To establish post offices and post roads”. Postmaster General John McLean, in office from 1823 to 1829, was the first to call it the Post Office Department rather than just the “Post Office.” The organization received a boost in prestige when President Andrew Jackson invited his Postmaster General, William T. Barry, to sit as a member of the Cabinet in 1829. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. The next U. S. commemorative in portrait orientation would be the Vermont Sesquicentennial issue of 1927, and many have appeared since. The Post Office Act (17 Stat. Beginning in 1948, Congressional Representatives and Senators began to push the Department for stamps proposed by constituents, leading to a relative flood of stamps honoring obscure persons and organizations. On February 20, 1792, President George Washington officially created the modern United States Postal Service by signing a sweeping act that promoted a free press and put privacy safeguards in place. The Postal Service Act was a piece of United States federal legislation that established the United States Post Office Department. Accordingly, the next stamp series commemorating a prominent exposition, the Pan-American Exposition held in Buffalo, New York in 1901, was considerably less costly, consisting of only six stamps ranging from in value from 1 cent to 10 cents. As the Post Office expanded, difficulties were experienced due to a lack of employees and transportation. Postal Service Act of 1792; Post Office Act of 1872; Comstock Act of 1873; Postal Reorganization Act … A series of twelve Parcel Post stamps intended for this service had already been released in December 1912, ranging in denomination from 1 cent to 1 dollar. Differences in the design of the frames are more readily apparent. Although there were only two central images, a profile of Washington and one of Franklin, many subtle variants appeared over the years. This was the first U.S. definitive series to include the image of a woman: Martha Washington, who appeared on the 8-cent stamp. In the Pan-American series the Post Office realized the plan for two-toned stamps that it had been obliged to abandon during the production of the Trans-Mississippi issue. The advent of Rural Free Delivery (RFD) in the U.S. in 1896 greatly increased the volume of mail shipped nationwide, and motivated the development of more efficient postal transportation systems. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Postal Service. Continental added secret marks to the plates of the lower values, distinguishing them from the previous issues. The act allowed for newspapers to be included in mail deliveries and made it illegal for postal officials to open anyone’s mail. Parcel Post service began with the introduction of International Parcel Post between the U.S. and foreign countries in 1887. The double-width layout would subsequently be employed in many United States commemorative stamps. Once it became clear that the postal system in the United States needed to expand across the entire country, the use of the railroad to transport the mail was instituted in 1832, on one line in Pennsylvania. In 1852, Easton’s son, Major-General Langdon Cheves Easton, was commissioned by William T. Sherman, at Fort Union to deliver a letter to Independence, Missouri. Before 1792, the Postal Service was basically a carbon copy of the imperial post office British colonial administrators had set up decades before the War of Independence. Many rural customers took advantage of the R.F.D. Franklin had already made a significant contribution to the postal service in the colonies while serving as the postmaster of Philadelphia from 1737 and as joint postmaster general of the colonies from 1753 to 1774, when he was fired for opening and publishing Massachusetts Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson’s correspondence. All eight denominations available in 1861-62, ranging from 1 cent to 90 cents, were offered in encased versions. The Post Office Act of 1792 emphasized its public role, setting low rates for mailing newspapers, which were subsidized by more expensive letters. Three new designs were needed, because the Post Office elected to add $1, $2 and $5 stamps to the series (previously, the top value of any definitive issue had been 90 cents). In 1860, the U.S. Post Office incorporated the services of the Pony Express to get mail to and from San Francisco, an important undertaking with the outbreak of the Civil War the following year as a communication link between Union forces and San Francisco and the West Coast was badly needed. The act ensured newspapers could be sent at low mail rates, which facilitated a free press across the new states. The same year, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company had acquired the right to transport mail under contract from the United States Government from the Isthmus of Panama to California. On February 20, 1792, President George Washington officially created the modern United States Postal Service by signing a sweeping act that promoted a free press and put privacy safeguards in place. The Revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. The volume of mail expanded much faster than the population, as it carried annually 100 letters and 200 newspapers per 1000 white population in 1790, and 2900 letters and 2700 newspapers per thousand in 1840. The Postal Service Act was a piece of United States federal legislation that established the United States Post Office Department.It was signed into law by President George Washington on February 20, 1792. This stamp was a 3-cent issue bearing a rather amateurish drawing of George Washington, printed from line engraved plates in sheets of 42 images. Neale appointed Andrew Hamilton, Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster. The Postal Service Act was a piece of United States federal legislation that established the United States Post Office Department.It was signed into law by President George Washington on February 20, 1792.. History. Section 1. It replaced the cabinet-level Post Office Department with the independent United States Postal Service on July 1, 1971. In its first year of operation, the Post Office completed 1,208 airmail flights with 90 forced landings. The stamps of the 1920s were dominated by the Series of 1922, the first new design of definitive stamps to appear in a generation. Like all U.S. stamps until 1857, they were imperforate. READ MORE: When People Used the Postal Service to Mail Their Children, Postal Service Act regulates United States Post Office Department, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/postal-service-act-regulates-united-states-post-office-department. Other innovations in what has become known as the 1869 Pictorial Issue included the first use of two-color printing on U.S. stamps, and as a consequence the first invert errors. But it was the Postal Act of 1792 that established the foundation of a modern Postal Service. George Washington was returned to the normal-letter-rate stamp: he had played that role in the issues of 1851 and 1861 and would continue to do so in every subsequent definitive set until the Presidential Series of 1938. While postmaster, Franklin streamlined postal delivery with properly surveyed and marked routes from Maine to Florida (the origins of Route 1), instituted overnight postal travel between the critical cities of New York and Philadelphia and created a standardized rate chart based upon weight and distance. In a 1973 case, McGee v. The Attorney General, ...read more, Lt. Edward O’Hare takes off from the aircraft carrier Lexington in a raid against the Japanese position at Rabaul-and minutes later becomes America’s first WWII flying ace. William Goddard, a Patriot printer frustrated that the royal postal service was unable to reliably deliver his Pennsylvania Chronicle to its readers or deliver critical news for the paper to Goddard, laid out a plan for the Constitutional Post before the Continental Congress on October 5, 1774. They consisted of an engraved 5-cent red brown stamp depicting Benjamin Franklin (the first postmaster of the U.S.), and a 10-cent value in black with George Washington. The Post Office Act of 1872 (17 Stat. Today in 1792, George Washington signed the Post Office Act, creating the United States Postal Service.Under the act, newspapers would be allowed in the mails at low rates to promote the spread of information across the states. The first stamp issue of the U.S. was offered for sale on July 1, 1847, in New York City, with Boston receiving stamps the following day and other cities thereafter. Also during 1893, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing competed for the postage stamp printing contract, and won it on the first try. Habibullah had succeeded his father, ...read more. An interesting date to remember in these days in which the Postal Service made it to the news with their Losses and their controversial solution by ending Saturday Letter Delivery. The final issue of 1898 altered the colors of many denominations to bring the series into conformity with the recommendations of the Universal Postal Union. The original issue included all the denominations offered in the previous series: 1 cent, 3 cents, 5 cents, 10 cents, 12 cents, 24 cents, 30 cents and 90 cents. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The design remained unchanged until 1894, and only four different postage due designs have appeared to date. Values of 50 cents and lower were mono-colored; on the $1, $2, and $5 stamps the presidents’ images were printed in black on white, surrounded by colored lettering and ornamentation. The Postal Service Act signed into law by President George Washington on February 20, 1792. The Postal Act made formal and regular what, until that time, had been sporadic and informal. This in turn helped increase the rate of economic growth, thereby contributing to its dominant position in the international economy today. In February 1861, a congressional act directed that “cards, blank or printed. During World War II, production of new U. S. 3-cent commemorative stamps all but ceased. A four-stamp series commemorating the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, California appeared in 1913, but no further commemoratives were issued until after World War I. The Post Office Department experimented with half-a-dozen different perforation sizes, two kinds of watermarking, three printing methods, and large numbers of values, all adding to several hundred distinct types identified by collectors. Before the introduction of stamps, it was the recipient of mail — not the sender — who generally paid the cost of postage, giving the fee directly to the postman on delivery. William Williams told the newspaperman that he had 300,000 gallons of heating oil to donate to the poor. Up through the 22-cent Cleveland stamp, the denomination assigned to each president corresponds to his position in the presidential roster: thus the first president, Washington, is on the 1-cent value, the seventeenth, Andrew Johnson, is on the 17-cent value, etc. The Postal Service Act signed into law by President George Washington on February 20, 1792. Mail service by railroad increased rapidly thereafter. Postal Act 1792 President George Washington signed the Postal Act of 1792 (shown here), formalizing the U.S. The half percent difference in interest was intended to pay for the operation of the system. By 1790, a United States population of almost four million was served by 75 Post Offices and approximately 2,400 miles of post roads. Indeed, the post office issued no 2-cent value for prepaying drop letters in 1847, and these continued to be handled as they had been. On many of the 1894 stamps, perforations are of notably poor quality, but the Bureau would soon make technical improvements. Congress waited to act on the plan until after the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. Parcel-post service between the U.S. and other countries grew with the signing of successive postal conventions and treaties. President George Washington signed the Act into law on Feb. 20, 1792. Neale’s patent expired in 1710, when Parliament extended the English postal system to the colonies. Only occasionally did a sender pay delivery costs in advance, an arrangement that usually required a personal visit to the Post Office. A steady stream of commemoratives appeared during these years, including a striking 1934 issue of ten stamps presenting iconic vistas of ten National Parks — a set that has remained widely beloved. Bruce Adamson wrote that: “Next to Benjamin Franklin, Rufus Easton was one of the most colorful people in United States Postal History.” It was Easton who educated Abraham Lincoln’s Attorney General, Edward Bates. One side was printed with a Liberty-head one-cent stamp design, along with the words “United States Postal Card” and three blank lines provided for the mailing address. Section 2. This was a piece of federal legislation that established the United States Post Office Department (1792-1971), the predecessor of the United States Postal Service. The act ensured newspapers could be sent at low mail rates, which facilitated a free press across the new states. A Postal Revolution 1792 Congress embedded a right to privacy in the mails when it established the United States Postal Service through the Postal Act of 1792. This system of political patronage was replaced in 1883, after passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. (Washington D.C.) – Today, Congressman Albio Sires released the following statement in response to the President’s continued attacks on the United States Postal Service (USPS): “Since the Postal Service Act of 1792, mail delivery has been a major program of the federal government, delivering mail conveniently at a low cost to millions across the country while simultaneously Breaking those laws is a criminal act. Later that year, Daniel Webster rose in the U.S. Senate to recommend that the recent English postal reforms — standardized rates and the use of postage stamps — be adopted in America. Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. To make them differentiable from the older stamps at a glance, all were required to have their values expressed in Arabic numerals (in the previous series, Arabic numerals had appeared only on the 30-cent stamp). Stamp issue did not again become well-regulated until the formation of the Citizens’ Stamp Advisory Committee (CSAC) in 1957. By 1869, with 27,000 local post offices to deal with, it had changed to sorting mail en route in specialized railroad mail cars, called Railway Post Offices, or RPOs. In 1806 Postmaster General Gideon Granger wrote a three-page letter to Easton, begging him not to partake in a duel with vice-president Aaron Burr. The initial minimum deposit was $1. It is also notable for §148 which made it illegal to send any obscene or disloyal materials through the mail, to be the foundation of the later Comstock Act of 1873. The introduction of the first postage stamps in Great Britain in May 1840 was received with great interest in the United States (and around the world). The Post Office got in on the act, issuing a series of 16 stamps depicting Columbus and episodes in his career, ranging in value from 1 cent to 5 dollars (a princely sum in those days). The stamps were interesting and attractive, designed to appeal to not only postage stamps collectors but to historians, artists and of course the general public who bought them in record numbers because of the fanfare of the Columbian Exposition of the World’s Fair of 1892 in Chicago, Illinois. They were quite successful (a great contrast to the pictorials of 1869), with lines spilling out of the nation’s post offices to buy the stamps. Upon arrival in Sacramento, the U.S. mail was placed on a steamer and continued down the Sacramento River to San Francisco for a total of 1,966 miles. In 1932, a set of 12 stamps was issued to celebrate George Washington’s 200th birthday anniversary. The outbreak of the American Civil War threw the postal system into turmoil. Five green Parcel Post Postage Due stamps appeared concurrently. It soon became obvious that none of these stamps was needed: parcel postage could easily be paid by definitive or commemorative issues, and normal postage due stamps were sufficient for parcels. On November 3, 1917, the normal letter rate was raised from 2 cents to 3 cents in support of the war effort. On February 20, 1792, President George Washington signs legislation renewing the United States Post Office as a … Benjamin Franklin promoted Goddard’s plan and was appointed as the first postmaster general under the Continental Congress beginning on July 26, 1775, nearly one year before the Congress declared independence from the British Crown. Notable also is the red-violet color chosen for the 3-cent stamps, a brighter hue than the traditional purple. Because news was considered crucial to an informed electorate, the 1792 law distributed newspapers to subscribers for 1 penny up to 100 miles and 1.5 cents over 100 miles; printers could send their newspapers to other newspaper publishers for free. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Definitions.— As used in this Act: a) “Corporation” shall refer to the Philippine Postal Corporation as provided for in this Act. The provisional issues of Baltimore were notable for the reproduced signature of the city’s postmaster — James M. Buchanan (1803-1876), a cousin to President James Buchanan. . At its peak in 1947, the system held almost $3.4 billion in deposits, with more than four million depositors using 8,141 postal units. While the Post Office agreed to deliver parcels sent into the country under the Universal Postal Union treaty, it did not institute a domestic parcel-post service for another twenty-five years. RMS employees sorted mail “on-the-fly” during the journey, and became some of the most skilled workers in the postal service. The whole process was very confusing to the public, and there are number of covers from 1862 and later with 1857 stamps and bearing the marking OLD STAMPS NOT RECOGNIZED. Along with this 1¢ stamp, the post office initially issued only two additional denominations in the series of 1851: 3¢ and 12¢, the three stamps going on sale that July and August. Many of the values were included merely to place the presidents in proper numerical order and did not necessarily correspond to a postal rate; and one of the (difficult) games for Prexie collectors is to find a cover with, for instance, a single 16-cent stamp that pays a combination of rate and fees valid during the Prexies’ period of usage. The 2-cent George Washington stamp appeared with two different designs (the original version was poorly received) while each of the other values has its own individual design. In 1823, ten years after the Post Office had first begun to use steamboats to carry mail between post towns where no roads existed, waterways were declared post roads. This remained an important route until the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. He was dismissed as colonial postmaster general after the publication of private letters of Massachusetts Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson in Massachusetts; Franklin admitted to acquiring the letters (probably from a third party, and not in any sort of official capacity) and sending them to Massachusetts. It was signed into law by President George Washington on February 20, 1792. Among the issues that Congress debated were rate structure, privacy, and procedures for the establishment of new postal routes. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Domestic air mail became obsolete in 1975, and international air mail in 1995, when the USPS began transporting First-Class mail by air on a routine basis. A black 15-cent stamp depicting the recently assassinated Abraham Lincoln was issued in 1866, and is generally considered part of the same series. A bilateral parcel-post treaty between the independent (at the time) Kingdom of Hawaii and the United States was signed on 19 December 1888 and put into effect early in 1889. This was the law that established the United States Post Office Department. The Postal Service Act was a piece of United States federal legislation that established the United States Post Office Department. In 1895, counterfeits of the 2-cent value were discovered, which prompted the BEP to begin printing stamps on watermarked paper for the first time in U.S. postal history. (and, later, Parcel Post) to order goods and products from businesses located hundreds of miles away in distant cities for delivery by mail. It presents an eagle posed in a “V” shape for victory surrounded by 13 stars. The 3-cent rate for first-class had been unchanged since 1932, but by 1958 there were no more efficiency gains to keep the lid on prices, and the rate went to 4 cents, beginning a steady series of rate increases that reached 49 cents as of January 26, 2014. National first printed these, then in 1873 Continental received the contract — and the plates that National used. All railroads in the United States were designated as post routes, after passage of the Act of July 7, 1838. Before they got a post office in 1826, “The neighbors would club together, put a boy on a horse, and about once a month he could be seen wending his way through forest and stream, … to get, perchance, half a dozen letters and papers for four times that number of families. Since the 1847 stamps no longer conformed to any postal rate, they were declared invalid after short period during which the public could exchange old stamps for new ones. Alexander M. Greig was advertised as the post’s “agent,” and as a result, historians and philatelists have tended to refer to the firm simply as “Greig’s City Despatch Post,” making no mention of Windsor. The Post Office had long avoided this image, fearing accusations that, in issuing stamps on which they would be defacing the flag by cancellation marks, they would be both committing and fomenting desecration. That Act of Congress established the Post Office Department. In these years, the postal service continued to produce commemorative sets in conjunction with important national expositions. Change ). Postal Act 1792 President George Washington signed the Postal Act of 1792 (shown here), formalizing the U.S. The Lincoln Centennial’s portrait format distinguished it from all other commemoratives released between 1893 and 1926, which were produced exclusively in landscape format. They were intended for use on V-mail, a means whereby mail intended for military personnel overseas was delivered with certainty. The service persons overseas used the same method for writing letters home, and the same process was used to reconstruct their letters, except that their postage was free. The two-cent surcharge on the V-mail letters helped pay for the additional expense of this method of delivery. J.D. Around 1935, Postmaster Farley removed sheets of the National Parks set from stock before they had been gummed or perforated, giving these and unfinished examples of ten other issues to President Roosevelt and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes (also a philatelist) as curiosities for their collections. On stamps of future years, the messenger would be provided the technological enhancements of a bicycle (1902) a motorcycle (1922) and a truck (1925). The law provided for a greatly expanded postal network, and served editors by charging newspapers an extremely low rate. The first post office in Greenfield, MA, from a c. 1910 postcard / Wikimedia Commons The Postal Service Act, signed by President George Washington on February 20, 1792… In January 1913, Postmaster General Frank H. Hitchcock introduced domestic parcel post service — a belated development, given that international parcel post service between the United States and other countries began in 1887. Up until 1979, Irish law prohibited the importation and sale of contraceptives. To ensure the sanctity and privacy of the mails, postal officials were forbidden to open any letters in… On April 13, 1861, (the day after the firing on Fort Sumter) John H. Reagan, postmaster-general of the Confederate States of America, ordered local postmasters to return their U.S. stamps to Washington D.C. (although it is unlikely that many did so), while in May the Union decided to withdraw and invalidate all existing U.S. stamps, and to issue new stamps. The large “Bank Notes” stamps did not represent a total retreat to past practices, for the range of celebrated Americans was widened beyond Franklin and various presidents to include notables such as Henry Clay and Oliver Hazard Perry. Depositors in the system were initially limited to hold a balance of $500, but this was raised to $1,000 in 1916 and to $2,500 in 1918. The common first-class stamp was a 3-cent Statue of Liberty in purple, and included the inscription “In God We Trust”, the first explicit religious reference on a U.S. stamp (ten days before the issue of the 3-cent Liberty stamp, the words “under God” had been inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance). Congress granted the Postmaster General broader powers. They were received favorably, though with less excitement than the Columbians; but like the Columbians, they are today prized by collectors, and many consider the $1 “Western Cattle in Storm” the most attractive of all U.S. stamps. The Bureau’s definitive issues of the 1890s consisted of 13 different denominations ranging from 1 cent to 5 dollars, and may be differentiated by the presence or absence of this watermark, which would appear on all U. S. postage stamps between 1895 and 1910. , many Post offices had never received any canceling devices make technical improvements infrastructure... 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