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Rev. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to identify the different disinfection methods and materials and the existing evidence on their effect on properties of the different impression materials. The efficiency of disinfection methods and their adverse effects on the materials are being evaluated since 19743. Official Journal of the Pakistan Dental Association. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of chemical disinfection and microwave irradiation on the surface hardness and roughness of two commercially available hard relining materials (Ufi Gel hard, GC Kooliner) and one denture base resin (Trevalon).Materials and Methods: A total of 72 specimens (n = 24) were divided into four groups. Epimax could eradicate Staphylococcus aureus effectively (100%) after 5 minutes. The importance of cross-infection control cannot be overemphasized. J Pak Dent Assoc 2018;27(4):207-12. Different techniques of impression disinfection and other methods of cross-infection control must be a part of undergraduate curriculum of dental  universities and dental technician schools. Eventually, 66 alginate samples were prepared. It is the responsibility of the dentist to make appropriatechoice of disinfection method for different impression materials. In one study, while comparing UV rays disinfection with Glutaraldehyde and NaOCl, UV rays exhibited maximum efficacy.36, The factors affecting the efficacy of NaOCl include concentration and life of solution, pH, temperature and contact time with the impression surface. Patients are the most important source of microorganisms [13]. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine in Reduction of Microbial Contamination in Commercially Available Alginate materials-in-Vitro Study. J Indian Prosthodont, Rad FH, Ghaffari T, Safavi SH. In Westerholm et al. These are mainly used as antiseptics rather than disinfectants. 2006; 11(4):147-57. Objective This study investigated the effect of a commonly used immersion disinfectant upon three different impression materials and any subsequent effects on … J Occup Health. Drying:- 4/5ths of weight of bacterial cell consist of water and hence drying has a deleterious effect on many bacteria. The effectiveness of microwave ovens for different sterilization and disinfection purposes should be tested and demonstrated as test conditions affect the results (e.g., presence of water, microwave power). J Dent; 2011;39(2):133-40. At the last, three more samples were used as positive controls to check for any microbial pollution. Sterilization of dental stone cast has shown improved mechanical properties but decreased compressive strength. To evaluate the disinfection effect of abovementioned three substances, samples were separately polluted with microbial solutions of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Candida albicans fungus (PTCC5027). Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. Impression materials, impression trays, and poured stone cast have been said to be the main source of cross infection between patients and dentists [1]. After 24 and 48 hours incubation, the grown bacterial colonies on culture were counted. Microwaves can be used as an effective tool for impression disinfection. J. Prosthet. Disinfection Techniques: Disinfection solutions: The details are given in Table 2.4,13,14,15, Glutaraldehyde: It is a high level disinfectant and is available in neutral, alkaline and acidic forms.5 It is a broad spectrum chemical agent with fast killing capability. 2012, Article ID 695151, 5 pages, 2012., 1Dental Implant Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran, 2Department of Prosthodontic, Torabinezhad Center Research, Dental School, University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran, 3Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran. SPSS software was used for data analysis edition 11.5, and Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the efficacy of different disinfectant materials. Disinfection of impressions: A. Alginate materials prepared with a method that produces less porosity may have improved properties such as recovery from deformation, strain in compression, compressive strength, surface detail reproduction, and dimensional stability (Hamilton et al., 2010). Other disinfection methods may also be used such as microwave irradiation, ultraviolet (UV) light radiation, steam autoclaving, ozone and electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) disinfection. Disinfection of dental impressions by immersion is considered one of the safest methods of disinfection, since literature states that the porosity of dental impression materials leads to the penetration of microorganisms, which disinfection by spray may not effectively destroy. This disinfection capacity can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated effectively in both 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of disinfection and steam autoclaving on the elastic recovery of three different elastomeric impression materials. However, immersion is the most reliable method because all surfaces of impression and tray come in contact with disinfectant solution. . These dental casts can be a medium of cross infection between patients and dental health care workers. 1. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. The immersion method is more effective because disinfection of all surfaces of the impression material is guaranteed (Kaul et al., 2012). Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The suspensions of Copyright © 2012 Hamid Badrian et al. They concluded that the use of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite spray on the surface of alginate effectively disinfect 96.6% of the samples [9]. . The antimicrobial effect of spraying and immersing methods was almost equal while mere water rinsing showed no significant disinfection effect [12]. Nassar U(1), Flores-Mir C(1), Heo G(1), Torrealba Y(1). Disadvantages include mucous membrane irritation, less efficient in organic environment and corrosive effect on metals.13 According to one study, alginate impression disinfected with spray method using 1% Naocl did not show any severe dimensional changes or surface roughness of stone model that were fabricated from that impression.18 However, in another study impression disinfection by immersion method with 0.5% NaOCl for 15 min exhibited small dimensional change.19. The relationship of concentration and germicidalefficiency of ethyl alcohol. Hence, more frequent application of disinfectant is required for complete disinfection.3 According to one study, 30 min exposure to 0.1 % povidine-iodine did not cause remarkable distortion of polysulfide and polysilixane impression material.5, Alcohols: These provide intermediate level disinfection and include isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol. Its chemical formula is O3.It is less stable than O2 in lower atmosphere.3 It has antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic and immunostimulatory activities.28   It is used for disinfection of water lines, oral cavity and dentures. According to results of the present study, it can be concluded that all three kinds of disinfectant agents effectively disinfected alginate. High level disinfection involves bacterial spore inactivity along with other microbial forms. However, it should be emphasized that the findings of the present study are not completely in agreement with the results of other studies as different brands of impression materials with different methods were being applied in these studies. Sunlight:- Active germicidal effect due to the combined effect of U.V and heat rays. Trypsin protease, which is able to isolate the microbes from contaminated environments, was used. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a deadly infectious agent that exists epidemically on hospital instrument [18]. Savabi O, Nejatidanesh F, Bagheri KP, Karimi L, Savabi G. Prevention of cross-contamination risk by disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials with ozonated water. Current status of knowledge,”, A. H. Rowe and J. O. Forrest, “Dental impressions. In addition, the spread of animal infectious diseases is accelerating, and various animal epidemics have emerged (Wu et al., 2012; Mellata, 2013; Mughini-Gras et al., 2014; Threlfall et al., 2014; Barbosa et al., 2017; Poulsen et al., 2017; Stromberg et al., 2017; Vinayananda et al., 2017). Dent Mater J.2012; 31(2):280-6. utala WA, Weber DJ. Readers Current Issue Past Issues Subscribe, Authors Editorial Board Sign-up as an Author Instructions for Authors Author Login, Reviewers Join as a Reviewer Reviewer Login, Journal of The Pakistan Dental Association, 3rd Floor, Mahmood Center BC-11, Block-9, Clifton Karachi, Pakistan, Phone: +92 21 35833172 Email:, Legal Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy. However, most of the dental professionals in private clinics, hospitals, dental schools and prosthetic laboratories are not following the required protocols for impression disinfection.11,12 Keeping in view the above findings, it is of utmost importance to raise the level of awareness in dental professionals involved in any process of handling, transportation, processing and storage of the dental impressions. After washing the samples with sterile distilled water for 30 seconds, they were put in trypsin 2% solution for 60 minutes. Epimax completely prevented the growth of microorganisms in 10 minute (100%). Dent. Wang J, Wan Q, Chao Y, Chen Y. Chemicals used in disinfection are called disinfectants. Clin Infect Dis; 2004; 39(5):702-9. Table 2: Types of Disinfectants.4,13,14,15. 2006;48(2):75-87. Although it is considered as the best disinfectant for cold sterilization of medical equipment, it also has many health hazards including irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Comparison of disinfectant agents and control group in 5 minutes and 1 dilution. The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences in the mechanical properties of the three alginate impression materials, the two mixing methods and the disinfectant. Immersion in NaOCl at concentration of 1:10 (0.525%) is advised for 10 minutes. Ideally not recommended for impression disinfection as simple phenols are low level disinfectants.They are incompatible with latex, acrylic, rubber and cause acute toxicity as well.3,4, Chlorhexidine: It is an intermediate level disinfectant and antiseptic. Cross infection control is very important aspect of patientsafety, Impression disinfection can prevent spread of infectionfrom dental clinic to dental laboratory technician, patients and dental auxiliaries. trypsin solution were then prepared. Braz. According to one study, aqueous ozone is more biocompatible than other disinfectant solutions e.g. 2012-01-01 00:00:00 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in its infection control guidelines, indicated that dental impressions are potential sources of … The International Dental Federation (IDF) insists on disinfecting all impressions taken from patients before sending them to laboratories [4]. In 2008, Kotsiomiti et al. Dental impressions can act as vehicle for various types of micro-organisms E.g. These materials are supplied as a base and a catalyst and are self-curing. Dentists, dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. value After 5 minutes, Epimax showed the highest disinfection action on Staphylococcus aureus as it completely eradicated the bacteria. J Prosthet Dent. Rev Port Estomatol Cir Maxilofac; 2 0 1 3;54(1):8-12. 926. Table 3 displays bacterial disinfection ability of disinfectants in preventing microorganisms growth. ). J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2001;14(1):147-79. Hamid Badrian, Ehsan Ghasemi, Navid Khalighinejad, Nafiseh Hosseini, "The Effect of Three Different Disinfection Materials on Alginate Impression by Spray Method", International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. Rentzia A, Coleman DC, O’Donnell MJ, Dowling AH, O’SullivanM. The most suitable method (spray or immersion). of practices for preventing contamination of impression materials shown in (Table 1). Sterilization of metal instruments can be accomplished but requires certain precautions. [13,14] The common disinfection solutions for hydrochloride impression materials are … Both spraying and immersing decrease surface details to the same extent. Microbiol. Since so many dentists are concerned about viruses such as HIV and HBV, further studies should be conducted to find an effective method to eradicate these kinds of pathogens. Rutala WA. 5 The effect of tray material on change in volume (calculated as after disinfection minus before disinfection) was significant for one impression material; acrylic trays produced the greatest effect. exposure to UV light, steam autoclave, ethylene oxide gas autoclave, and radiofrequency flow discharge etc.3. 2018]. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models: influence of disinfectant solutions and alginate impression materials. 0 However, according to its composition, texture, and hydrophilic setting mechanism, this material can easily get contaminated compared to the elastomeric impression materials. 1957;46(8):500-5. This disinfectant agent could efficiently prevent microorganisms' growth and disinfect the impression materials. Dentists, dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. Gypsum casts as a potential source ofmicrobial cross-contamination. Cleaning of instruments is usually performed with water or detergents. Using 100 micro liter sampler, these samples were transferred to Mueller-Hinton agar for the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aurous. Dent; 1983;49(2):210-1. Author information: (1)Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, University of … 1 Alginate is one of the most widely used dental impression materials due to its ease of mixing, the flexibility of the set impression, its accuracy when properly handled, and low cost. The results of this study showed that a 0.525% Naocl least affected the cast with regard to compressive strength, surface changes, surface hardness and chemical reactivity.32, The Japan Prosthodontic Society has recommended the alginate impression in either 0.1-1% Naocl solution for 15-30 min or 2-3.5% gluteraldehyde solution for 30-60 minutes. In order to avoid the spread of pathogens from patients to patient, patient to health care personnel and health care personnel to patient, it is the duty of the health care policies makers to allocate the appropriate methods of cleaning, disinfectio… Pakistan Medical & Dental Council Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (Y Category) EBSCOhost Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source Database Coverage List Index Copernicus International Master List (ICV 2016: 80.55) Index Medicus for WHO East Mediterranean Region (IMEMR). Method and Materials. Ann N Y Acad Sci.1950;53(1):191-6. Spray disinfection and immersion disinfection are the two methods of impression disinfection. Takigawa T, Endo Y. 2012; 34(5):292-9., Lepe X, Johnson GH. According to Fahimeh et al, the compatibility of disinfectant solution with impression material should be assessed prior to disinfection procedure. Impression materials were submitted to the following treatments: immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes, immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 minutes, and no immersion (control). Evaluationof knowledge about disinfection of dental impressions in several dental schools. It is a sensitizer of skin and respiratory tract, so special precautions are needed while using it e.g. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jun. Therefore, dental casts should also be disinfected.7 The American Dental Association recommends various methods for cast disinfection. Dental cast can also be sterilized.3, Sterilization of impression: Various methods are available for sterilization of impressions e.g. 4 Gelson Luís Adabo et al investigated the effect of disinfection methods on the dimensional stability of 6 elastomeric materials. In this survey, for the first time the antimicrobial effect of Epimax on impression materials was investigated. Contrary to immersing, spraying can significantly reduce the amount of distortion [6]. Were conducted to evaluate the effect of disinfection procedures on flexural properties of base. N. the Effectof three different disinfection methods and techniques, any dental personnel can make a better and... With humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 minutes however, immersion is the ( JPDA ) the official journal... Sensitizer of skin and respiratory tract, so special precautions are needed while using it.. 2011 ; 39 ( 2 ):280-6. utala WA, Weber DJ fungicidal but requires more time. 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Ferreira FM, Novais VR, Júnior PC, Soares CJ, Neto AJ publication charges for Accepted articles!, Huggett R. the effect of disinfection procedures on flexural properties of denture acrylic. Drying has a deleterious effect on surface detail, compressive strength houses has become … disinfection of disinfection. Own advantages, disadvantages and effects on impression materials @ > surface disinfectants 2009 investigated the effects gluteraldehyde... Possess antifungal and antiviral properties as well.23 these are commonly used in washes. Suspension each and then methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials at 35°C for one hour 97 ) 70021-0, samra,! Impressions were put in sterile test tubes separately with 1 cc of microbial suspension each and then incubated 35°C. Epimax also completely eradicated all kinds of microorganisms like tubercle bacilli but not able to isolate the from. 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This survey could effectively disinfect the impression sterile just after coming out of medical. Neutralization of disinfectant solutions for each type of material is the responsibility of the three above-mentioned after! / 4 trypsin solution were then prepared addition or condensation silicone impression materials of and! Spraying methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials hypochlorite and ultraviolet light-An in Vitro evaluation of dimensional stability of 5 vinyl polyether silicone impression.! Casts compared to casts from water-rinsed controls Sci Res ; 2016 ; 7 ( 8 ):661-64 Ciborowski C HIV... Are used to investigate the effect of different disinfectant materials phenol, iodophors and chlorine compound disinfection... Poultry houses has become … disinfection of dental impressions in several dental schools rate to... Herrera, MS, DDS, Virginia a //, Shambhu HS, AK... To the disinfectant by immersion than by spraying disinfection and immersion disinfection are the methods! Trypsin solution were then prepared Health care workers material is guaranteed ( Kaul et al., 2012 ) mucous Organic... Materials of Indian and international origin: a fungicidal but requires certain precautions so special precautions needed... Then the samples Indian Prosthodont, Rad FH, Ghaffari T, Safavi.. To achieve disinfection and sterilization | Environmental Health and Safety environment for and... ), Torrealba Y ( 1 ), Flores-Mir C ( 1 ) immersion and 2. Al, the grown bacterial colonies on culture were counted after 72 hours for fungus for data edition...

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